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THE BRIDGE WORLD

BRIDGE WORLD STANDARD 2017
POLLS, CHANGES AND ADDITIONS


   Bridge World Standard 2017 (BWS or BWS2017) is effective beginning with the January 2017 Master Solvers' Club problems. This page shows (1) the results of the panelist polls that were used to adjust the system; and (2) the changes in and the additions to Bridge World Standard 2001 (BWS2001) that were made.
   In the listings of the questions and answers, an asterisk indicates the BWS2001 agreement; the proportion of the expert votes for each item, rounded to the nearest percent, is shown in brackets.

System Changes


General

   201. Should a four-of-a-major response to a one-bid in a lower-ranking suit be an exception to the general one-level-above-splinter-is-exclusion-ask principle?
A. no* [25]
B. yes [75]
   System change: A triple jump-response of four of a major is natural (pre-emptive in nature).

   202. Should a redouble after two passes be for takeout any time it might be possible to play in at least two other strains?
A. no* [25]
B. yes [75]
   System change: Redouble in passout seat for rescue when at least two other strains are possible.

   203. If an undiscussed but clearly forcing noncompetitive five-notrump bid might logically be interpreted as more than one among (x) grand-slam force, (y) choice of slam, and (z) control-showing, the priority order of interpretation is:
A. x-y-z* [14]
B. x-z-y [3]
C. y-x-z [49]
D. y-z-x [34]
E. z-x-y [0]
F. z-y-x [0]
   System change: In this context, y-x-z is the priority order.

   204. If an undiscussed competitive four-notrump bid that might logically be interpreted as more than one among (x) ace-asking, (y) key-card-asking, and (z) takeout, the priority order of interpretation is:
A. x-y-z [10]
B. x-z-y [0]
C. y-x-z [7]
D. y-z-x [20]
E. z-x-y [10]
F. z-y-x [53]
   System change: In this context, z-y-x is the priority order.

   The remaining questions in this section involve doubles. These definitions have been added: If it does not have a specific descriptive meaning (e.g., a support double), a double may be classified as:

takeout: Announces a hand-type that suggests reaching a contract in other than the current strain.
cooperative-takeout: Suggests that partner take out with normal distribution for the earlier auction, pass only with strong defensive orientation.
cooperative-penalty: Suggests that partner pass with normal distribution for the earlier auction, take out only with strong offensive orientation.
penalty: Suggests that partner pass.
For example, in Bridge World Standard 2001, a double of a natural suit one-bid is takeout, a double of a natural pre-emptive opening is cooperative-takeout at the lower levels or cooperative-penalty at very high levels, a double of an overcall of partner's pre-emptive opening is penalty.

   205. After a one-level suit response and a one-level overcall passed to responder [e.g.: one diamond -- (pass) -- one heart -- (one spade) -- pass -- (pass) -- ?, a double should be . . .
A. cooperative-penalty [15]
B. cooperative-takeout [46]
C. penalty [0]
D. takeout [39]
   206. After a one-level suit response and a two-level overcall passed to responder [e.g.: one diamond -- (pass) -- one heart -- (two clubs) -- pass -- (pass) -- ?, a double should be . . .
A. cooperative-penalty [12]
B. cooperative-takeout [59]
C. penalty [0]
D. takeout [29]
   207. After a two-level suit response and a two-level overcall passed to responder [e.g.: one heart -- (pass) -- two diamonds -- (two spades) -- pass -- (pass) -- ?, a double should be . . .
A. cooperative-penalty [47]
B. cooperative-takeout [34]
C. penalty [12]
D. takeout [7]
   208. After a one-level suit response and a three-level overcall passed to responder [e.g.: one diamond -- (pass) -- one heart -- (three clubs) -- pass -- (pass) -- ?, a double should be . . .
A. cooperative-penalty [27]
B. cooperative-takeout [56]
C. penalty [0]
D. takeout [17]
   209. After a two-level suit response and a three-level overcall passed to responder [e.g.: one heart -- (pass) -- two diamonds -- (three clubs) -- pass -- (pass) -- ?, a double should be . . .
A. cooperative-penalty [54]
B. cooperative-takeout [31]
C. penalty [13]
D. takeout [2]
   System change: After a one-level response, responder's reopening double of a sandwich overcall through the three-level is cooperative-takeout. After a two-level response, responder's reopening double of a sandwich overcall through the three-level is cooperative-penalty.

   210-213: In a competitive sequence, when a pass would be nonforcing, a double should be treated as follows:

   210. doubler limited, partner limited
A. cooperative-penalty [17]
B. cooperative-takeout [31]
C. penalty* [44]
D. takeout [8]
   211. doubler limited, partner unlimited
A. cooperative-penalty [15]
B. cooperative-takeout [34]
C. penalty* [41]
D. takeout [10]
   212. doubler unlimited, partner limited
A. cooperative-penalty [5]
B. cooperative-takeout [49]
C. penalty* [36]
D. takeout [10]
   213. doubler unlimited, partner unlimited
A. cooperative-penalty* [39]
B. cooperative-takeout [47]
C. penalty [0]
D. takeout [14]
   System change: In a competitive sequence, when a pass would be nonforcing and no special agreement applies, a double is penalty if the doubler is limited, cooperative-takeout if the doubler is unlimited.

   214. After our side has bid a suit, a double of a final contract in notrump by the player not on lead suggests . . .
A. leading the suit bid by the defenders [19]
B. no special lead-direction or non-lead-direction* [51]
C. not leading the suit bid by the defenders [30]

   215. After the opponents have bid two suits [e.g.: (one diamond) -- pass --(one spade) -- ?] , a double should be . . .
A. takeout for the unbid suits [92]
B. takeout of the last-bid suit [8]
   System change: A low-level sandwich-position double after the opponents have bid two suits is takeout for the unbid suits.

   216. After the opponents have bid three suits, a double by lurker [e.g.: (one heart) -- pass -- (one spade) -- (pass) -- (two diamonds) -- double] should be . . .
A. overall strength, with length in the first-bid suit [46]
B. penalty [3]
C. takeout of the last-bid suit [30]
D. takeout of the last two suits bid [7]
E. takeout of the suit bid behind the doubler [14]
   System change: A low-level delayed double by lurker after the opponents have bid three suits shows strength with length in the suit of the opening bid.

   217. In any situation in which a player could either double or bid notrump for takeout, taking one of these actions and then converting the lowest removal to the next-lowest possibility [e.g.: (one spade) -- pass -- (two spades) -- pass -- (pass) -- double or two notrump -- (pass) -- three clubs -- (pass) -- three diamonds], the difference between the two sequences is that . . .
A. doubling first suggests more in high cards; notrump first suggests more in shape [75]
B. doubling first suggests that an equal preference go to the strain just bid by the player who asked for takeout [e.g.: diamonds in the example sequence][8]
C. doubling first suggests that an equal preference go to the strain not just bid by the player who asked for takeout [e.g.: hearts in the example sequence][12]
D. something else [5]
   System change: When either a double or a notrump bid, when followed by a conversion, would show length in the same two suits: starting with a double suggests more in high cards, starting with a notrump bid suggests more in shape.

   218-219: After (one of a suit) -- one-level overcall -- (one notrump):
   218. A double should show . . .
A. interest in the two unbid suits [88]
B. strength [12]
   219. A cue-bid should show . . .
A. a desire to play in the contract named [17]
B. a strong raise [66]
C. strength (possibly a strong raise, possibly to create a force in an unbid suit) [17]
D. something else [0]
   System change: After (one of a suit) -- one-level overcall -- (one notrump): a double shows interest in the unbid suits, a cue-bid shows a strong raise.

   220. If responder passes over a takeout double and then doubles the advance (or a further bid by the intervenor) [e.g.: one diamond -- (double) -- pass -- (one spade) -- pass -- (pass or bid) -- double], it means . . .
A. penalty (a stronger suggestion than if preceded by a redouble) [47]
B. penalty (a weaker suggestion than if preceded by a redouble) [17]
C. takeout [34]
D. something else [2]
   System change: Responder's pass of the takeout double of a suit one-bid and later double is for penalty and a stronger suggestion than if responder had redoubled.

   221. At opener's next turn after a one-level suit response, support doubles should be used . . .
A. as high as two of responder's suit* [86]
B. as high as three of responder's suit [14]
C. as high as four of responder's suit [0]

   222. Barring exceptional holdings, should the failure to make a support double deny three cards in responder's suit?
A. no [32]
B. yes [68]

   223. One club -- (pass or double) -- one diamond -- (one spade) -- double . . .
A. should be a support double [47]
B. should show hearts* [41]
C. should show high-card strength with no convenient bid [12]

   224. In a potential support-double situation, should a double of a natural notrump bid be a support double?
A. no [49]
B. yes [51]
   System change: Support doubles apply through two of responder's suit, whatever the seqence and whatever responder's suit. Opener's failure to make a support double denies three cards in responder's suit (except in a freakish hand).

   225. Should the case of a two-club overcall of a one-notrump opening be an exception to the general principle that a double of an artificial bid suggests a penalty double of the escape?
A. no* [22]
B. yes (use normal system meanings with double substituting for two clubs) [78]
   System change: After a two-club overcall directly over a one-notrump opening, normal system menaings apply with a double substituting for a two-club response.

   226. After one of a major -- (pass) -- one notrump -- (overcall) . . .
A. a double by opener should be penalty; a double by responder after two passes should be penalty [4]
B. a double by opener should be penalty; a double by responder after two passes should be takeout [5]
C. a double by opener should be takeout; a double by responder after two passes should be penalty* [37]
D. a double by opener should be takeout; a double by responder after two passes should be cooperative-takeout [39]
E. a double by opener should be takeout; a double by responder after two passes should be takeout [15]
   System change: After one of a major -- (pass) -- one notrump -- (overcall): a double by opener is takeout, a double by responder after two passes is cooperative-takeout.

   227. In an auction in which both partnerships have bid, should a not-otherwise-defined double of a below-game contract be defined as cooperative-takeout?
A. no* [51]
B. yes, except for a double of a natural notrump bid [46]
C. yes, without exception [3]

Slam Methods

   301. In reply to a key-card-ask, the first two steps should show . . .
A. 0 or 3 key cards | 1 or 4 key cards* [54]
B. 1 or 4 key cards | 0 or 3 key cards [41]
C. either 03|14 or 14|03, depending on the earlier part of the auction [5]

   302. After a one- or two-step reply to a key-card-ask, the cheapest forcing bid other than a specific-king-ask should inquire about the queen of the agreed suit . . .
A. always [73]
B. if it is below five of the agreed suit* [27]
   System change: After a one- or two-step reply to a key-card-ask, the cheapest forcing bid other than a specific-king-ask inquires about the queen of the agreed suit.

   303. If there is interference after a key-card-ask, Teller should follow this scheme . . .
A. at a low-enough level, DOPI; at a high-enough level, DEPO* [69]
B. at or below five of the agreed suit, DOPI; higher, DEPO [31]

   304. Last Train should apply . . .
A. any time there is only one call that indicates slam interest or further slam interest without raising the partnership's level of commitment* [81]
B. as in 304A but with specific exceptions [19]

   305. In applying the Kaplan slam principles (after a below-game slam-try, a control-bid shows extra values; after an above-game slam-try, a control-bid is automatic with the appropriate control), if the slam-try is exactly four of the agreed suit . . .
A. act as if it were a below-game slam-try [85]
B. act as if it were an above-game slam-try [15]
   System change: In the Kaplan slam principles, after a slam-try no higher than four of in the agreed suit, a control-bid shows extra values.

Partnership-Bidding Methods

   401. After a two-notrump opening and responder's three-level transfer to a major, opener's bid above three of that major should be . . .
A. a superacceptance with a very-promising hand for the major* [68]
B. if three notrump, an offshape opening (otherwise a superacceptance) [18]
C. if three notrump, a three-card fit for the major (otherwise a superacceptance) [12]
D. if three notrump, denying a three-plus-card fit for the major, where three of the major shows such a fit (otherwise a superacceptance) [0]
E. something else [2]

   402. After two clubs -- two diamonds -- two notrump and responder's three-level transfer to a major, opener's bid above three of that major should be . . .
A. a superacceptance with a very-promising hand for the major* [63]
B. if three notrump, an offshape opening (otherwise a superacceptance) [19]
C. if three notrump, a three-card fit for the major (otherwise a superacceptance) [12]
D. if three notrump, denying a three-plus-card fit for the major, where three of the major shows such a fit (otherwise a superacceptance) [3]
E. something else [3]

   403. After two clubs -- two diamonds -- two hearts [hearts, or game-force and balanced] -- two spades [relay] -- two notrump and responder's three-level transfer to a major, opener's bid above three of that major should be . . .
A. a superacceptance with a very-promising hand for the major* [54]
B. if three notrump, an offshape opening (otherwise a superacceptance) [20]
C. if three notrump, a three-card fit for the major (otherwise a superacceptance) [12]
D. if three notrump, denying a three-plus-card fit for the major, where three of the major shows such a fit (otherwise a superacceptance) [12]
E. something else [2]

   404. When a jump-reverse after a one-level suit response shows a splinter (e.g.: one club -- one heart -- three diamonds), a bid one level above that (in the example sequence, four diamonds) should show . . .
A. a void in a strong raise [61]
B. an exclusion key-card-ask [20]
C. something else [9]
   System change: After a one-level suit response, opener's rebid one level above a jump-reverse shows a void in a strong raise.

   405. A two-spade response to one notrump should be . . .
A. a transfer to clubs* [41]
B. either clubs or a range-ask (then, opener bids two notrump with a minimum) [59]

   406. After one notrump -- two spades (if it unambiguously shows clubs) or one notrump -- two notrump (if it unambiguously shows diamonds), opener's weakest action should be . . .
A. a bid of the indicated suit* [51]
B. the cheapest bid [49]

   407. A two-notrump response to one notrump should be . . .
A. a transfer to diamonds* [56]
B. either diamonds or a weak minor two-suiter (opener picks a minor; responder's conversion of three clubs to three diamonds is weak) [44]
   408. If 407B is adopted, a three-club response to one notrump should be . . .
A. invitational with at least five-five in the minors [36]
B. puppet Stayman (asking for a five-card major; over a three-diamond denial, three of a major by responder shows four cards in the unbid major) [64]
   System change: A two-spade response to one notrump shows either clubs or a desire to ask about opener's range. Opener bids two notrump with a minimum.

   409-411: After one notrump -- two clubs -- two of a major -- ?:
   409. Three of the unbid major should be . . .
A. a slam-try in opener's major* [42]
B. an unspecified splinter raise [58]
   410. If 409B is adopted, four clubs should be . . .
A. a key-card-ask [58]
B. a slam-try in the major with no short suit [32]
C. something else [10]
   411. If 409B is adopted, four diamonds should be . . .
A. a key-card-ask [41]
B. a slam-try in the major with no short suit [47]
C. something else [12]
   System change: After one notrump -- two clubs -- two of a major -- ?: three of the unbid major shows an unspecified splinter, four clubs is a key-card-ask, four diamonds is a slam-try in the major with no short suit.

   412. A two-over-one response to a major-suit opening is forcing to game . . .
A. except when responder rebids his suit simply after opener has not promised extra values* [14]
B. always [86]
   413. If 412B is adopted, with invitational strength and a long suit ranking under opener's, responder should . . .
A. jump-shift in his suit (invitational) [87]
B. pretend that the hand is too weak to invite, or too strong merely to invite, or has a different orientation [10]
C. something else [3]
   414. If 413A is not adopted, a three-level jump-shift response should be . . .
A. a Bergen raise (or part of some similar raising structure) [47]
B. pre-emptive [14]
C. strong* [39]
   System change: After a major-suit opening: a two-over-one response is forcing to game, a jump-shift to three of an underranking suit is invitational.

   415. A three-notrump response to a major-suit opening should be . . .
A. a weak pre-emptive raise with some defensive strength* [34]
B. a minimum-range game-raise with an undisclosed splinter [27]
C. some other type of raise [15]
D. natural [15]
E. something else [9]

   416. A four-club response to a preemptive opening in a different suit should be . . .
A. a key-card-ask only if a jump* [25]
B. a key-card-ask regardless [75]

   417. A four-notrump response to a pre-emptive opening should be . . .
A. a key-card-ask always [29]
B. Blackwood for aces when four clubs is available as a key-card ask, a key-card-ask otherwise [68]
C. something else [3]
   System change: In response to a pre-emptive opening in a suit other than clubs, four clubs is a key-card-ask; when four clubs is available as a key-card-ask, a four-notrump response is Blackwood for aces (if four clubs is not a key-card-ask, then four notrump is a key-card-ask).

   418. A two-club response to one diamond should be . . .
A. forcing to game unless responder rebids his suit simply after opener has not promised extra values* [17]
B. forcing to game unless responder rebids two notrump, three clubs, or three diamonds over two diamonds after opener has not promised extra values [5]
C. forcing to game [78]
   419. If 418C is adopted, with invitational strength and long clubs, responder should . . .
A. bid three clubs (invitational) [91]
B. pretend that the hand is too weak to invite, or too strong merely to invite, or has a different orientation [2]
C. something else [7]

   420. Opener's reverse of the form one diamond -- two clubs -- two of a major . . .
A. does not promise extra values* [68]
B. does not promise extra values and denies as many as five diamonds [32]
   System change: After a one-diamond opening: a two-club response is forcing to game (opener's two-of-a-major rebid does not show extra values and is ambiguous as to diamond length), a three-club response is invitational.

   421. Should a one-notrump rebid by opener be permissible with a singleton in responder's suit?
A. no* [19]
B. yes [81]
   System change: Opener may rebid one notrump with a singleton in responder's suit.

   422. A non-reverse fourth-suit bid at the two-level should be . . .
A. forcing for one round* [17]
B. forcing to game [83]
   System change: Responder's fourth-suit bid at the two- or three-level is forcing to game.

   423. After a single major-suit raise, opener's two-notrump rebid should be . .
A. forcing (invitational-plus strength) [69]
B. invitational (nonforcing)* [31]
   System change: After a single major-suit raise, opener's two-notrump rebid is forcing with at least game-invitational strength.

   424. After opener's one-notrump rebid . . .
A. responder's rebid of the cheapest two of an unbid minor should be an artificial checkback* [22]
B. responder's rebid of two clubs should be a marionette to two diamonds, where opener may bid above two diamonds with three cards in the suit of the initial response (with responder's non-jump continuation invitational); responder's rebid of two diamonds should be a game-forcing checkback [15]
C. responder's rebid of two clubs should be a puppet to two diamonds (with responder's non-jump continuation invitational); responder's rebid of two diamonds should be a game-forcing checkback [63]
   System change: After opener's one-notrump rebid: responder's rebid of two clubs is a puppet to two diamonds (with responder's non-jump continuation invitational), responder's rebid of two diamonds is a game-forcing checkback.

   425. In response to a three-notrump opening, four notrump should be . . .
A. asking for opener's minor [25]
B. invitational* [75]

   426. A single minor-suit raise should be forcing to . . .
A. three of the minor [73]
B. two notrump [27]
   System change: A single minor-suit raise is forcing to the level of three of the minor.

   427. After a major-suit opening, a direct double raise should be . . .
A. invitational* [56]
B. mixed (partly constructive, partly preemptive) [30]
C. preemptive [14]

   428. With four of a major and four diamonds, and enough strength to bid, responder to one club should bid . . .
A. one diamond [3]
B. one diamond only with invitational-plus strength* [29]
C. one diamond only with game-forcing strength [19]
D. one of the major [39]
E. whichever suit judgment dictates [10]
   429. With four of a major and five diamonds, and enough strength to bid, responder to one club should bid . . .
A. one diamond* [12]
B. one diamond only with invitational-plus strength [37]
C. one diamond only with game-forcing strength [31]
D. one of the major [5]
E. whichever suit judgment dictates [15]
   430. With four of a major and six diamonds, and enough strength to bid, responder to one club should bid . . .
A. one diamond* [34]
B. one diamond only with invitational-plus strength [27]
C. one diamond only with game-forcing strength [15]
D. one of the major [5]
E. whichever suit judgment dictates [19]
   System change: In response to one club, with four of a major and four-plus diamonds, responder bids one of the major with four diamonds, one diamond with invitational-plus values (otherwise one of the major) with five diamonds, one diamond with six diamonds.

Competitive-Bidding Methods

   501. After one of a suit -- (simple overcall) -- single raise -- (single raise) -- ? a double should be a game-try including high-card strength but possibly short in the opponents' suit . . .
A. always [18]
B. never [2]
C. when there is no intervening bid available below three of opener's suit* [80]
   502. If 501C is retained, when there is an intervening bid available below three of opener's suit for a game-try, opener's double should be . . .
A. a game-try that may include a singleton in the opponents' suit [12]
B. a game-try with at least two cards in the opponents' suit [25]
C. penalty* [63]
   503. After one of a suit -- (pass) -- nonforcing single raise -- overcall -- ?, or one of a suit -- (simple overcall) -- single raise -- (simple new-suit bid), when there is an intervening bid available below three of opener's suit for a game-try, opener's double should be . . .
A. a game-try that may include a singleton in the last-bid suit [9]
B. a game-try with at least two cards in the last-bid suit [15]
C. penalty* [76]
   504. After one of a suit -- (pass) -- nonforcing single raise -- overcall -- ?, or one of a suit -- (simple overcall) -- single raise -- (simple new-suit bid), when there is not an intervening bid available below three of opener's suit for a game-try, opener's double should be . . .
A. a game-try that may include a singleton in the last-bid suit [61]
B. a game-try with at least two cards in the last-bid suit [5]
C. penalty* [34]
   System change: In any sequence in which responder has made a nonforcing single raise of opener's suit, and there is a bid one step below three of the raised suit, opener's double is a game-try that may include shortness in the suit doubled.

   505-507: After one notrump -- (pass) -- two clubs -- (double) -- ?
   505. If not redoubling with especially strong clubs, opener should . . .
A. bid with an especially weak club holding, pass with an average holding [20]
B. pass with no club stopper, bid with a stopper [61]
C. pass with a club stopper, bid without one [19]
   506. If opener passes or redoubles, two diamonds by responder should be . . .
A. weak; indicative of a Garbage-Stayman response [96]
B. invitational [2]
C. forcing for one round [2]
   507. If opener passes or redoubles, two hearts by responder should be . . .
A. weak; indicative of a Garbage-Stayman response [92]
B. invitational [8]
   System change: After one notrump -- (pass) -- two clubs -- (double) -- ?: opener passes with no club stopper or bids with a stopper; if opener passes or redoubles, two diamonds or two hearts by responder indicates a Garbage-Stayman hand-type.

   508. After a major-suit one-bid and a simple overcall, responder's jump- shift should be . . .
A. fit-showing [34]
B. pre-emptive* [66]

   509. After a minor-suit one-bid and a simple overcall, responder's jump-shift should be . . .
A. fit-showing [29]
B. pre-emptive* [71]

   510. After a major-suit one-bid and a jump-overcall, responder's jump-shift should be . . .
A. fit-showing [56]
B. natural and more than a minimum game-force* [44]

   511. After a minor-suit one-bid and a jump-overcall, responder's jump-shift should be . . .
A. fit-showing [53]
B. natural and more than a minimum game-force* [47]
   System change: After a suit one-bid and a jump-overcall, responder's jump-shift is fit-showing.

Defensive-Bidding Methods

   601. The basic defense against one-notrump openings should be . . .
A. Cappelletti* [20]
B. DONT [7]
C. Meckwell [20]
D. Multi-Landy [15]
E. Woolsey [26]
F. none of the above [12]
   System change: After an opposing one-notrump opening: double = a four-card major and a longer minor (advancer can bid two clubs to ask for the minor, two diamonds to ask for the major), two clubs = majors (advancer can bid two diamonds to ask for a preference between them), two diamonds = a major one-suiter, two hearts|two spades = the bid suit plus a minor, two notrump = minors, three of a suit = natural.

   602-604: After (one of a suit) -- double -- (simple new-suit bid) -- ?
   602. Advancer's double should be . . .
A. cooperative-penalty [7]
B. cooperative-takeout [8]
C. penalty* [75]
D. takeout [10]
   603. Advancer's cue-bid in opener's suit should be . . .
A. an artificial force [75]
B. natural* [25]
   604. If 603A is adopted, the difference between the two available cue-bids should be . . .
A. lower cue-bid forcing one round; higher cue-bid forcing to explicit suit agreement or game [49]
B. lower cue-bid forcing to explicit suit agreement or game; higher cue-bid forcing to game [3]
C. something else [48]
   System change: After (one of a suit) -- double -- (simple new-suit bid) -- ?: a double is for penalty, a cue-bid of either of the opponents' suits is an artificial force (the lower cue-bid is forcing for one round, the higher cue-bid to suit agreement or game).

   605. Over a suit one-bid, a two-suited cue-bid or two-notrump overcall should show . . .
A. any biddable hand for (one of a minor) -- two of a minor [showing majors], all others weak or strong [3]
B. any biddable hand with appropriate shape [53]
C. either weak high cards or strong high cards (intervenor overcalls with mid-range values)* [44]
   System change: Over a suit one-bid, a two-suited cue-bid or two-notrump overcall has a continuous strength range from the minimum requirement upwards.

   606. Over a natural major-suit pre-empt, an overcall at any level is natural, except that four of a minor shows that minor and the unbid major . . .
A. always [19]
B. when it is a jump* [81]

   607. When a four-of-a-minor overcall of a major-suit pre-emptive shows that minor and the unbid major, it is . . .
A. forcing [76]
B. nonforcing [24]
   System change: When a jump to four of a minor over of a major-suit pre-emptive shows that minor and the unbid major, it is forcing.

Bridge World Standard Defense

   701. Should the Smith signal be adopted?
A. no* [32]
B. yes [68]
   System change: Against notrump, each defender's first card played after trick one that does not need an emergency meaning--such as count in dummy's long suit--is an in-context attitude signal relating to the suit of the opening lead.

   702. The mechanism for attitude signals should be . . .
A. high encourages; low discourages* [46]
B. low encourages; high discourages [54]
   703. If 702B is adopted, should the system also switch the count-giving mechanism outside the trump suit to high odd, low even?
A. no* [37]
B. yes [63]
   System change: In attitude signals, low encourages; in count signals, low shows an even number.

   704. In trumps, if there is any signal given, the basic meaning of the defenders' cards should be . . .
A. count [10]
B. suit-preference [64]
C. suit-preference only when there is a clear issue for the defense, otherwise count [26]
   System change: A defensive signal in the trump suit is a suit-preference signal.

System Additions

General

   1101. Should "forcing to the level of three notrump" (potentially replacing "forcing to game" in some situations) be acceptable in system descriptions? (Main positive: Enables describing an agreement under which a partnership could stop at four of an agreed minor after determining not to play in three notrump. Main negative: Adds complexity.)
A. no [61]
B. yes [39]

   1201. After the double of a splinter, a control-bid, a cue-bid, or an artificial invitational-plus raise . . .
A. a simple return to an agreed or indicated suit is the weakest action [93]
B. individual cases should be discussed separately [7]
   System addition: After an opponent's double of an artificial action, a simple return to an agreed or indicated suit is the weakest action.

   1202. When the opponents have made the last bid at the two-level, and it has not been doubled [e.g.: one club -- (pass) -- one heart -- (one spade) -- pass -- (two spades) -- ?; but there are many sequences with these general characteristics], among actions by a player who has not passed after the opponents entered the auction and might have either game-invitational or lesser intentions in at least one suit . . .
A. two notrump is natural and nonforcing; direct bids that might be competitive or invitational are competitive [61]
B. two notrump is natural and nonforcing; direct bids that might be competitive or invitational are invitational [4]
C. two notrump is ostensibly weaker than any direct bid (unless nonetheless entertaining game prospects, partner makes the cheapest bid that is playable from his perspective) [31]
D. two notrump shows invitational-plus strength (to decline the invitation, partner makes the cheapest bid that is playable from his perspective), a direct bid that might be competitive has that meaning [2]
E. some other weak-strong dichotomy should be adopted [2]

Slam Methods

   1301. After a six-key-card-ask, can Asker sign off at any level in either of the key suits?
A. no [4]
B. yes [96]
   System addition: After a six-key-card-ask, any bid in either key suit by Asker is a signoff.

   1302. When an eight-plus-card major-suit fit has been established, neither partner has made a natural two-notrump bid, and the auction is forcing to game, a nonjump bid of three notrump is . . .
A. a mild slam-try (a control-bid would be a strong slam-try) [70]
B. a slam-try denying the ability to
make the cheapest control-bid at the four-level or any control-bid at the three-level [6]
C. a strong slam-try (a control-bid would be a mild slam-try) [11]
D. a suggestion of a final contract [13]
   System addition: When an eight-plus-card major-suit fit has been established, neither partner has made a natural two-notrump bid, and the auction is forcing to game, a nonjump bid of three notrump is a mild slam-try, and a control-bid (or a long-suit slam-try, as in 1303) is a strong slam-try. [This supersedes the shortness-ask following a double raise of a major-suit opening.]

   1303. The first slam-try made by the partnership after a suit has been agreed should show length in the bid suit (or, when applicable, where a high-card value will be especially useful) when . . .
A. the player making the slam-try has shown no suit other than the agreed suit (e.g.: one club -- one heart -- three hearts -- four diamonds) [37]
B. the player making the slam-try opened two clubs [15]
C. the condition in either A. or B applies [22]
D. something else [26]

   System addition: The first slam-try after suit agreement shows length in the bid suit (or, when applicable, where a high-card value will be especially useful) when the try is made by a player who has shown no suit other than the agreed suit.

Partnership-Bidding Methods

   1401. After one club -- one diamond -- one notrump -- ?, responder's rebid of two of a major should be . . .
A. forcing for one round [33]
B. forcing to game [67]
   System addition: After one club -- one diamond -- one notrump -- ?, responder's rebid of two of a major is forcing to game.
   1402. One notrump -- two clubs -- two diamonds -- four of a minor should show . . .
A. a splinter with a six-card minor and a four-card major [22]
B. a splinter with four-four in the majors [2]
C. a splinter with four-four or four-three in the majors [5]
D. a splinter with four-three in the majors [0]
E. four=six in the majors if four clubs; six=four in the majors if four diamonds [32]
F. something else [39] (A follow-up question asked of those who answered F revealed wide disagreement, with at least 12 different suggestions.)

   System addition: One notrump -- two clubs -- two diamonds -- four clubs|diamonds shows four=six|six=four in the majors.

   1403. One of a major -- one notrump -- two notrump should be . . .
A. forcing for one round [24]
B. forcing to game [11]
C. invitational [65]

   1404. If two notrump is forcing in the sequence in 1403, responder's continuation of three of a suit other than opener's suit should be . . .
A. a transfer [76]
B. natural and forcing [13]
C. nonforcing if an underranking suit [4]
D. something else [7]

   1405. If two notrump is invitational in the sequence in 1403, responder's continuation of three of a suit other than opener's suit should be . . .
A. a transfer [74]
B. nonforcing if an underranking suit [21]
C. something else [5]
   System addition: One of a major -- one notrump -- two notrump is invitational; responder's continuation of three of a suit other than opener's is a transfer.

   1406. One of a minor -- one notrump -- two notrump should be . . .
A. forcing for one round [10]
B. forcing to game [0]
C. invitational [90]

   1407. In an uncontested auction, should a natural, new-suit bid by a two-club opener be forcing, even at the game-level [e.g.: two clubs -- two diamonds -- three diamonds -- three spades -- four hearts]?
A. no [69]
B. yes [31]

   1408-1410: After one club -- one diamond -- one heart -- one spade (showing four spades but not necessarily any extra strength; two spades would be an artificial game-force) -- one notrump -- ?

   1408. three of a minor should be . . .
A. forcing [72]
B. invitational [28]
   1409. two of a minor should be . . .
A. invitational [52]
B. weak [48]
   1410. two spades should be . . .?
A. an artificial game-force [63]
B. a natural force [37]
   System addition: After one club -- one diamond -- one heart -- one spade -- one notrump -- ?: two or three of a minor is invitational; two spades is an artificial game-force.

   1411-1413: After one club -- one diamond -- one heart -- one spade (showing four spades but not necessarily any extra strength; two spades would be an artificial game-force) -- two clubs -- ?

   1411. three diamonds should be . . .
A. forcing [78]
B. invitational [22]
   1412. two diamonds should be . . .
A. invitational [65]
B. weak [35]
   1413. two spades should be . . .
A. an artificial game-force [74]
B. a natural force [26]
   System addition: After one club -- one diamond -- one heart -- one spade -- two clubs: two diamonds is invitational; two spades (artificial) is game-forcing; three diamonds is forcing.

   1414. After one diamond -- two notrump (invitational) -- ? . . .
A. three clubs should be forcing [61]
B. three clubs should be nonforcing [39]

   1415. After one of a minor -- two notrump (invitational) -- ?, three of a major should be . . .
A. a short suit [77]
B. natural [23]

   1416. After one club -- two notrump (invitational) -- ?, three diamonds should be . . .
A. a short suit [61]
B. natural [39]
   System addition: After one of a minor -- two notrump: a new-suit bid of three clubs is natural and forcing; a three-level reverse shows a short suit.

   1417. Having opened one club with 4=4=2=3 and a hand too weak to open one notrump, after one club -- one diamond -- ?, opener should bid . . .
A. one heart [31]
B. one notrump [60]
C. one of the stronger major [0]
D. what is dictated by judgment [9]

   1418. Having opened one club with 4=4=2=3 and a hand too strong to open one notrump, after one club -- one diamond -- ?, opener should bid . . .
A. one heart [13]
B. one of the stronger major [0]
C. two hearts [5]
D. two notrump [78]
E. two of the stronger major [0]
F. what is dictated by judgment [4]
   System addition: Having opened one club with 4=4=2=3, after a one-diamond response opener should rebid in notrump.

   1419. Having opened one of a major with 5-3-3-2 or 4=5=2=2, opener may pass a semiforcing one-notrump response with a hand deemed no stronger than . . .
A. 12 high-card points [46]
B. 13 high-card points [43]
C. 14 high-card points [11]
   System addition: Having opened one of a major with 5-3-3-2 or 4=5=2=2, opener may pass a semiforcing one-notrump response only with a hand deemed no stronger than 12 high-card points.

   1420. After two clubs -- two diamonds -- three clubs -- ?, where a three-diamond rebid would be a double-negative, should responder show a five-plus-card major suit even with double-negative strength?
A. no [79]
B. yes [21]

   1421. After one heart -- one notrump -- two of a minor -- ?, two spades is a strong raise of opener's minor and is . . .
A. forcing to three of opener's minor [60]
B. forcing to two notrump [40]
   System addition: After one heart -- one notrump -- two of a minor -- ?, two spades is a strong raise of opener's minor and is forcing to three of opener's minor.

   1422. After one spade -- one notrump -- two diamonds -- ?, three hearts is a strong raise of diamonds and . . .
A. bears no direct relationship to hearts [52]
B. shows at least five hearts [42]
C. shows at least four hearts [6]
   System addition: After one spade -- one notrump -- two diamonds -- ?, three hearts is a strong raise of diamonds that bears no direct relationship to hearts.

   1423-1424: After one heart -- one notrump -- two clubs -- ? . . .
   1423. should two diamonds be artificial (with some of the functions of Bart after one spade -- one notrump -- two clubs)?
A. no [74]
B. yes [26]
   1424. responder's three-diamond rebid should show . . .
A. a hand with long diamonds improved by the two-club bid [78]
B. a strong minor two-suiter [15]
C. some other sort of strong club raise with which responder does not want to bid two spades [7]
   System addition: After one heart -- one notrump -- two clubs -- ?, three diamonds shows long diamonds in a hand improved by the two-club bid.

   1425. After one of a major -- one notrump -- two of a lower-ranking suit -- ?, four of a suit ranking below opener's second suit [e.g.: one spade -- one notrump -- two diamonds -- four clubs] is a strong raise of opener's second suit and shows . . .
A. a control in the bid suit [48]
B. a splinter in the bid suit [39]
C. length in the bid suit [13]
D. some other specific characteristic [0]

   1426. After a one-notrump response and a jump-shift, a non-jump bid of four of a new suit by responder [e.g.: one spade -- one notrump -- three diamonds -- four clubs] should be . . .
A. a control-bid ostensibly in support of opener's second suit [78]
B. natural [22]
   System addition: After one of a major -- one notrump -- two of a lower-ranking suit -- ? or a one-notrump response and a jump-shift, four of a suit ranking below opener's second suit is a control-bid supporting opener's second suit.

   1427. An invitational-plus single minor-suit raise is forcing to . . .
A. three of the raised minor [71]
B. two notrump [29]
   System addition: An invitational-plus single minor-suit raise is forcing to three of the raised minor.

   1428. After one of a suit -- one of a suit -- three notrump -- ?, five clubs should be . . .
A. a key-card-ask for opener's suit [55]
B. an ace-ask [21]
C. something else [24]

   1429. After one of a suit -- one of a suit -- three notrump -- ?, a non-reverse bid of four of a new suit should be . . .
A. a control [74]
B. natural [22]
C. something else [4]

   1430. After one of a suit -- one of a suit -- three notrump -- ?, a reverse of four of a new suit should be . . .
A. a control [83]
B. natural [13]
C. something else [4]

   1431. After one of a suit -- one of a suit -- three notrump -- ?, four notrump should be . . .
A. a key-card-ask for opener's suit [28]
B. invitational [70]
C. something else [2]
   System addition: After one of a suit -- one of a suit -- three notrump -- ?: five clubs is a key-card-ask for opener's suit; four of a new suit shows a control; four notrump is invitational.

   1432. After one of a minor -- one heart -- one spade [usual with four=three in the majors] -- one notrump -- ?, to bid two hearts, opener should have four=three in the majors, shortness in the unbid suit, and . . .
A. any strength consistent with the one-spade rebid [48]
B. at least a queen-equivalent above a minimum with that shape [42]
C. at least an ace-equivalent above a minimum with that shape [10]
   System addition: After one of a minor -- one heart -- one spade -- one notrump -- ?, opener may bid two hearts with four=three in the majors, shortness in the unbid suit, and any strength consistent with the one-spade rebid.

   1433. After a new-suit response at the two-level, opener's three-level splinter [e.g.: one heart -- two diamonds -- three spades] should show . . .
A. any strength [67]
B. at least a queen-equivalent above a minimum with appropriate shape [26]
C. at least an ace-equivalent above a minimum with appropriate shape [7]
   System addition: After a new-suit response at the two-level, opener's three-level splinter may be based on any strength.

   1434. In BWS 2017, a jump-shift to the three-level is invitational. After a minor-suit opening, a jump-shift to two of a major should be . . .
A. major-showing (five-plus spades, four-plus hearts, game-invitational if two spades, weaker than game-invitational if two hearts) [41]
B. strong [37]
C. weak [9]
D. something else [13]

   1435. In BWS 2017, a jump-shift to the three-level is invitational. One heart -- two spades should be . . .
A. a game-forcing raise of hearts [15]
B. an invitational-plus raise of hearts [3]
C. strong [48]
D. weak [15]
E. something else [19]

   1436. In BWS 2017, a jump-shift to the three-level is invitational. One club -- two diamonds should be . . .
A. invitational [24]
B. strong [42]
C. weak [8]
D. something else [26]
   System addition: A jump-shift to the two-level is strong if two spades after a one-heart opening or two diamonds after a one-club opening, limited with majors if two of a major after a minor-suit opening (five-plus spades, four-plus hearts, game-invitational if two spades, weaker than game-invitational if two hearts).

   1437. In BWS 2017, a sequence of the form one notrump -- two clubs -- two of a major -- three of the other major shows a slam-try in opener's major with some (as yet unindicated) short suit. To find the short suit, opener should . . .
A. make the cheapest bid [96]
B. make the cheapest bid that is not in the agreed suit [2]
C. something else [2]
   1438. If, as in 1437, opener relays to ask for short suit, responder indicates the location of the shortness by . . .
A. bidding the short suit (with a cheaper, available bid in notrump or in the agreed suit substituting for the dearest-to-bid suit) [43]
B. using the first three steps to show shortness in the lowest-|middle-|highest-ranking possible short suit [52]
C. using the first three steps to show shortness in the highest-|middle-|lowest-ranking possible short suit [5]
D. something else [0]
Note: It is assumed that if the agreement adopted calls for responder to make a bid in the agreed suit, with a hand too strong to make a nonforcing bid at the current level, responder will make the next-higher available bid.
   System addition: After one notrump -- two clubs -- two of a major -- three of the other major, the cheapest bid by opener is a relay for responder's shortness (which is shown in steps: lowest-|middle-|highest-ranking possible short suit; if a step bid would be inappropriately nonforcing, the next available bid substitutes for it).

   1439. After responder's (game-forcing) fourth-suit bid at the two-level, opener, if lacking the shape to show an additional extra distributional feature and lacking a stopper in the fourth suit should . . .
A. bid notrump [24]
B. make whichever bid his judgment says misses a normal requirement by the least [74]
C. raise the fourth suit [1]
D. rebid his own first-bid suit [1]

Competitive-Bidding Methods

   1501. Opener's double of a new-suit advance of an overcall [e.g.: one club -- (one heart) -- pass -- (one spade) -- double] should be . . .
A. cooperative-penalty [20]
B. takeout for opener's suit and the unbid suit [67]
C. takeout of intervenor's suit [13]
D. takeout of the last-bid suit [0]
   System addition: Opener's double of a new-suit advance of an overcall is takeout for opener's suit and the unbid suit.

   1502. After an overcall of a one-notrump opening, Texas (four-level) transfers should apply if the overcall was no higher than . . .
A. four clubs [48]
B. three notrump [1]
C. three of a suit [5]
D. three clubs [46]
E. the two-level [0]
F. one notrump (i.e., never applies) [0]
   System addition: After an overcall of a one-notrump opening, Texas transfers apply if the overcall was no higher than four clubs.

   1503. After a sandwich overcall of a one-level suit response, should a two-level, nonreverse new-suit bid by responder [e.g.: one diamond -- (pass) -- one spade -- (two clubs) -- pass -- (pass) -- two hearts] be forcing?
A. no [89]
B. yes [11]
   1504. After a sandwich overcall of a one-level suit response, should a three-level, nonreverse new-suit bid by responder [e.g.: one diamond -- (pass) -- one spade -- (two hearts) -- pass -- (pass) -- three clubs] be forcing?
A. no [80]
B. yes [20]
   System addition: After a sandwich overcall of a one-level suit response, a simple, nonreverse new-suit bid by responder is nonforcing.

   1505. After responder redoubles a suit one-bid, should a nonjump, nonreverse new-suit bid by opener [e.g.: one spade -- (double) -- redouble -- (two clubs) -- two diamonds] be forcing?
A. no [80]
B. yes [20]
   System addition: After responder redoubles a suit one-bid, a nonjump, nonreverse new-suit bid by opener is nonforcing.

   1506. After a one-notrump opening, a two-level transfer, and an overcall, should a nonjump, nonreverse new-suit bid by responder [e.g.: one notrump -- (pass) -- two hearts -- (three diamonds) -- pass -- (pass) -- three hearts] be forcing?
A. no [63]
B. yes [37]
   System addition: After a one-notrump opening, a two-level transfer, and an overcall, a nonjump, nonreverse new-suit bid by responder is nonforcing.

   1507. After a nonforcing, competitive two-notrump response, should a nonreverse three of a new suit by opener [e.g.: one diamond -- (one spade) -- two notrump -- (pass) -- three clubs] be forcing?
A. no [67]
B. yes [33]
   System addition: After a (nonforcing) competitive two-notrump response, a nonreverse three of a new suit by opener is nonforcing.

   1508. After a reopening one-notrump bid by opener [e.g.: one diamond -- (one spade) -- pass -- (pass) -- one notrump], responder's below-game forcing actions should be . . .
A. cue-bids [65]
B. cue-bids and three-level bids [35]
   System addition: After a reopening one-notrump bid by opener, responder's only below-game forces are cue-bids.

   1509. After an overcall of a strong single minor-suit raise [e.g.: one club -- (pass) -- two clubs -- (two hearts)], a pass by opener should be forcing to . . .
A. the same level that the response forced to [97]
B. some other arrangement [3]
   System addition: After an overcall of a strong single minor-suit raise, a pass by opener is forcing to three of the agreed minor.

   1510. After a competitive two-level response (which is forcing to the next level of opener's suit), is a raise of responder's suit [e.g.: one spade -- (two clubs) -- two diamonds -- (pass) -- three diamonds] forcing?
A. no [96]
B. yes [4]
   System addition: After a competitive two-level response (forcing to the next level of opener's suit), a raise of responder's suit is nonforcing.

   1511-1512: If opener makes a competitive rebid that would have been a reverse in the absence of competition [e.g.: one club -- (pass) -- one spade -- (two diamonds) -- two hearts]:
   1511. Opener's bid . . .
A. shows extra values but can be weaker than reverse strength and is nonforcing [74]
B. shows the usual reversing values and is forcing [26]
   1512. For responder rebids in that sequence . . .
A. the only below-game forces available are cue-bids and jumps [70]
B. the usual structure after a reverse applies [30]
   System addition: If opener makes a competitive rebid that would have been a reverse in the absence of competition, it shows extra values but can be weaker than reverse strength and is nonforcing; among responder's rebids, the only below-game forces are cue-bids and jumps.

   1513-1514: After a one-notrump opening and a two-notrump overcall (ostensibly showing minors) . . .
   1513. three of a minor should show . . .
A. a major (clubs = hearts, diamonds = spades) with invitational-plus strength [39]
B. a major (clubs = hearts, diamonds = spades) with game-forcing strength [6]
C. Stayman (three clubs) or part of a transfer scheme (three diamonds = hearts, three hearts = spades) [55]
   1514. If there are no transfers in 1513, three of a major should be . . .
A. natural and forcing [76]
B. natural and nonforcing [24]
   System addition: After a one-no-trump opening and a two-notrump overcall (ostensibly showing minors), three of a minor is Stayman, three diamonds and three hearts are transfers.

   1515. After the negative double of a one-level overcall and opener's one-notrump rebid [e.g.: one club -- (one heart) -- double -- (pass) -- one notrump] . . .
A. a two-level cue-bid shows invitational-plus strength [63]
B. a two-level cue-bid is forcing to game [37]
   System addition: After the negative double of a one-level overcall and opener's one-notrump rebid, responder's two-level cue-bid shows invitational-plus strength.

   1516-1519: After one of a minor -- (one heart) -- double [showing at least four spades], . . .
   1516. Is responder limited to exactly four spades?
A. no [18]
B. yes [82]
   1517. In this sequence, opener may bid one spade on a three-card suit. This one-spade rebid shows . . .
A. a hand too weak to raise a noncompetitive one-spade response to two (if opener would have raised a non-competitive one-spade response to two, he bids two spades) [48]
B. any hand worth a noncompetitive raise to two spades. [6]
C. either a hand suitable for a noncompetitive single raise with three-card support or a minimum noncompetive single raise with four-card support (with a maximum noncompetitive single raise with four-card support, opener bids two spades) [46]
   1518. In this sequence, does opener's two-spade rebid show four spades?
A. no [31]
B. yes [69]
   1519. If 1518B is adopted, opener's two-spade rebid shows . . .
A. at least an ace above minimum opening values with appropriate shape [26]
B. at least a queen above minimum opening values with appropriate shape [35]
C. possibly minimum opening-bid values with appropriate shape [39]
   System addition: In a sequence of the form one of a minor -- (one heart) -- double: responder shows exactly four spades; opener's one-spade rebid shows a hand too weak to raise a noncompetitive one-spade response to two (with only three spades); opener's two-spade rebid shows four spades and a hand worth a raise of a noncompetitive one-spade response to two (possibly a minimum).

   1520. After opener shows four-card support with a single raise of a major-suit response (because a double would have shown three-card support), is any bid by responder forcing to at least three of the raised major?
A. no [37]
B. yes [63]
   System addition: If opener shows four-card support with a single raise of a major-suit response, any bid by responder is forcing to at least three of the raised major.

   1521. After one of a suit -- (simple overcall) -- single raise -- (single raise) -- pass -- (pass) -- ? a double by responder should be . . .
A. cooperative penalty [59]
B. cooperative takeout [37]
C. penalty [4]
   1522. After one of a suit -- (double) -- single raise -- (simple new-suit bid) -- pass -- (pass) -- ? a double by responder should be . . .
A. cooperative penalty [48]
B. cooperative takeout [44]
C. penalty [8]
   1523. After one of a suit -- (pass) -- single raise -- (simple overcall) -- pass -- (pass) -- ? a double by responder should be . . .
A. cooperative penalty [58]
B. cooperative takeout [35]
C. penalty [7]
   System addition: After one of a suit -- (pass|double|simple overcall) -- single raise -- (single raise|simple new-suit bid|simple overcall) -- pass -- (pass) -- ?: responder's double is cooperative penalty.

   1524. After one club -- (one of a major) -- double -- (pass), opener's two-diamond rebid does not show extra values. This rebid . . .
A. may be based on a three-card diamond suit (e.g., five clubs, three diamonds, four cards with no honor in overcaller's suit) [35]
B. shows four diamonds [65]
   System addition: After one club -- (one of a major) -- double -- (pass) -- ?, opener's two-diamond rebid shows four diamonds but does not show extra values.

   1525. After a suit bid over a one-level overcall and opener's one-notrump rebid [e.g.: one club -- (one heart) -- one spade -- (pass) -- one notrump] . . .
A. cue-bids have different meanings from the usual structure after opener's one-notrump rebid [87]
B. the bidding continues as if there had been no overcall [13]
   System addition: After a suit bid over a one-level overcall and opener's one-notrump rebid, responder's cue-bid is a one-round force, and other low-level bids are natural.

   1526. After a negative double of a two-level overcall, opener's two-notrump rebid . . .
A. could be based on no extra values [89]
B. shows at least a queen-value more than a minimum [11]
C. shows at least an ace-value more than a minimum [0]
   System addition: After a negative double of a two-level overcall, opener's two-notrump rebid could be based on no extra values.

   1527. In a competitive sequence following a suit one-bid, when a player might want to bid three of at least one suit as either noninvitational or invitational, BWS 2017 should use . . .
A. nothing artificial [68]
B. two notrump as artificial with (at least) game-invitational strength (to decline the invitation, partner makes the cheapest playable bid); three of a suit previously bid by the partnership as noninvitational [5]
C. two notrump as artificial with (presumptively) noninvitational strength, suit of interest unspecified (lacking substantuial extra values. partner makes the cheapest playable bid); three of a suit previously bid by the partnership as invitational [26]
D. something else artificial [1]

Defensive-Bidding Methods

   1601. After a two-notrump advance of a two-level overcall [e.g.: (one spade) -- two diamonds -- (pass) -- two notrump] intervenor's nonreverse, three-level suit bid should be . . .
A. forcing [57]
B. nonforcing [43]
   System addition: After a two-notrump advance of a two-level overcall, intervenor's nonreverse, three-level suit bid is forcing.

   1602. Does advancer's passed-hand cue-bid after an overcall [e.g.: pass -- (one diamond) -- one spade -- (pass) -- two diamonds] guarantee a fit for overcaller's suit?
A. no [28]
B. yes [72]
   System addition: Advancer's passed-hand cue-bid after an overcall guarantees a fit for intervenor's suit.

   1603. After a simple new-suit advance of an overcall, a cue-bid by intervenor [e.g.: (one diamond) -- one heart -- (pass) -- one spade -- (pass) -- two diamonds] should . . .
A. be artificial and deny a primary fit for advancer's suit [33]
B. be artificial and neither show nor deny a primary fit for advancer's suit [48]
C. be artificial and show a primary fit for advancer's suit [13]
D. be natural [6]
   System addition: After a simple new-suit advance of an overcall, a cue-bid by intervenor is artificial and neither shows nor denies a primary fit for advancer's suit.

   1604. After a one-notrump advance of an overcall, a cue-bid by intervenor [e.g.: (one diamond) -- one heart -- (pass) -- one notrump -- (pass) -- two diamonds] should . . .
A. be artificial and forcing [78]
B. be natural [22]
   System addition: After a one-notrump advance of an overcall, a cue-bid by intervenor is artificial and forcing.

   1605. A below-game, new-suit advance of a direct-position overcall of a pre-emptive opening is forcing for one round. Does the same interpretation hold for lurker's new-suit advance of a reopening-position overcall [e.g.: (three clubs) -- pass -- (pass) -- three hearts -- (pass) -- three spades]?
A. no [78]
B. yes [22]
   System addition: Lurker's new-suit advance of a reopening-position overcall of a pre-emptive opening is nonforcing.

   1606. Does a one-level doubler's jump in notrump [e.g.: (one diamond) -- double -- (pass) -- one heart -- (pass) -- two notrump] deny the usual minimum fit in advancer's suit suggested by a takeout double?
A. no [76]
B. yes [24]
   System addition: A one-level doubler's jump in notrump does not deny the usual minimum fit in advancer's suit suggested by the takeout double.

   1607. After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple new-suit advance, and doubler's simple new-suit bid [e.g.: (one diamond) -- double -- (pass) -- one heart -- (pass) -- one spade -- (pass) -- ?], a simple takeout to advancer's suit or to the unbid suit should be . . .
A. constructive [67]
B. correctional [33]
   System addition: After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple new-suit advance, and doubler's simple new-suit bid, a simple takeout to advancer's suit or to the unbid suit is constructive.

   1608. After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple new-suit advance, and doubler's cue-bid [e.g.: (one club) -- double -- (pass) -- one heart -- (pass) -- two clubs -- (pass) -- ?], . . .
A. any bid up to and including a simple bid of advancer's suit is negative [59]
B. any simple bid in a suit other than opener's is negative [8]
C. only a simple bid of advancer's suit is negative [33]
   System addition: After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple new-suit advance, and doubler's cue-bid, any bid by advancer up to and including a simple bid of advancer's suit is negative.

   1609. After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple new-suit advance, and doubler's single jump in a new suit [e.g.: (one club) -- double -- (pass) -- one heart -- (pass) -- two spades -- (pass) -- ?], . . .
A. any bid by advancer is a game-force [48]
B. any bid except a raise below game by advancer is a game-force [24]
C. any bid except a raise below game or a simple rebid of his own suit by advancer is a game-force [17]
D. any bid except a simple rebid of his own suit below game by advancer is a game-force [2]
E. to force below game, advancer must jump or cue-bid [9]
   System addition: After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple new-suit advance, and doubler's single jump in a new suit, any bid by advancer is a game-force.

   1610. After a double of a suit one-bid, if advancer cue-bids and continues with two notrump, that should be natural and . . .
A. forcing [67]
B. invitational [33]
   System addition: After a double of a suit one-bid, advancer's cue-bid followed by two notrump is forcing.

   1611. After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple advance in a major suit, and a new-suit bid by doubler, advancer's continuation in an unbid minor [e.g. (one club) -- double -- (pass) -- one heart -- (pass) -- one spade -- (pass) -- two diamonds . . .
A. denies more than four cards in the suit of the original advance [52]
B. does not deny more than four cards in the suit of the original advance [48]
   1612. After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple advance in a major suit, and a cue-bid by doubler, advancer's continuation in an unbid minor [e.g. (one club) -- double -- (pass) -- one heart -- (pass) -- two clubs -- (pass) -- two diamonds . . .
A. denies more than four cards in the suit of the original advance [70]
B. does not deny more than four cards in the suit of the original advance [30]
   System addition: After a double of a suit one-bid, a simple advance in a major suit, and a new-suit bid or cue-bid by doubler, advancer's continuation in an unbid minor denies more than four cards in the suit of the original advance.

   1613. A simple new-suit advance of a two-level overcall [e.g.: (one spade) -- two clubs -- (pass) -- two hearts] should be . . .
A. constructive but nonforcing [61]
B. forcing [39]
C. weak [0]
   1614. If 1613B is adopted, a single-jump advance of a two-level overcall [e.g.: (one spade) -- two clubs -- (pass) -- three hearts] should be . . .
A. a fit-jump [65]
B. invitational [18]
C. weak [17]
   System addition: A simple new-suit advance of a two-level overcall is constructive but nonforcing.

   1615-1616: Should the system use minimum equal-level conversions [a natural new-suit bid at the same level as the advance does not show extra strength] by takeout doubler . . .
   1615. . . . if converting a club advance to diamonds [leaf of current system] after doubling a suit one-bid?
A. no [59]
B. yes [41]
   1616. . . . if converting any new-suit advance after doubling a preemptive opening suit bid?
A. no [70]
B. yes [30]

   1617. In BWS 2017, over an opposing suit one-bid, a cue-bid or a two-notrump overcall shows a two-suiter (majors over a minor, other major and a minor over a major) with any strength in the biddable range [previously, these bids were weak or strong]. If intervenor instead overcalls and then shows a lower-ranking suit, indicating length in two suits that could have been shown with a two-suited action, the inference is . . .
A. intervenor has only four cards in the lower-ranking suit [52]
B. intervenor has six-five [6]
C. intervenor may have either four cards in the lower-ranking suit or six-five [31]
D. something else [11]
   System addition: If intervenor overcalls and then shows a lower-ranking suit, indicating length in two suits that could have been shown directly with a two-suited action, intervenor shows only four cards in the lower-ranking suit.

Bridge World Standard Defense

   1701-1702: When a low lead in the trump suit shows an even number and a higher lead shows an odd number, what is the normal lead from a trump holding of . . .
   1701. eight-seven-three?
A. the eight [78]
B. the seven [22]
   1702. eight-six-three?
A. the eight [32]
B. the six [68]
   System addition: When leading a higher-than-necessary trump to show an odd number, preserve the highest trump except to lead highest of equals.

   1703. If leading a high card under the general rule of second-highest from a worthless holding, if the two highest cards held are equals, the normal lead is . . .
A. the highest equal [69]
B. the second-highest card held [39]
   System addition: When effectively leading second-highest from a worthless holding, from adjacently-ranked cards, lead the highest equal.
BRIDGE WORLD STANDARD 2017

Bridge World Standard is the standard system developed by The Bridge World magazine based on the preferred methods of leading American experts. The system is ideal for use by impromptu or casual partnerships and as a basis for discussion by those who wish to formulate their own system. It is also used as a framework for problems in the magazine's monthly Master Solvers' Club contest.